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It's Everywhere! These days there are more devices running linux than any other operating system, from high end servers and desktops to smartphones and tablets and supercomputers, linux truly is everywhere. I thought it might be helpful to run a linux page with some bits and pieces of useful information for all of us linux geeks, please feel free to join the conversation at the end of the page!
Linux Terminal Commands

./ = Run a script or program
Enter = Run the command
cd .. = move up one directory
cd = move to home directory from anywhere
ls -al = list hidden files
date = Show the current date and time
cal = Show this month's calendar
uptime = Show current uptime
w = Display who is online
top = show running processes
whoami = Who you are logged in as
finger user = Display information about user
uname -a = Show kernel information
cat /proc/cpuinfo = CPU information
cat /proc/meminfo = Memory information
df = Show disk usage
du = Show directory space usage
free = Show memory and swap usage
Up Arrow = Show the previous command
service --status-all
tasksel --list-tasks
tasksel --task-packages dns-server
shutdown -h now = Shutdown the system now and do not reboot
halt = Stop all processes - same as above
shutdown -r 5 = Shutdown the system in 5 minutes and reboot
shutdown -r now = Shutdown the system now and reboot
reboot = Stop all processes and then reboot - same as above
startx = Start the X system
ifconfig = List IP addresses for all devices on the local machine
ping -c n host = Ping -c number of packets for host and output results
whois domain = Get whois information for domain
dig domain = Get DNS information for domain
dig -x host = Reverse lookup host
Ctrl + A = Return to the start of the command you're typing
Ctrl + E = Go to the end of the command you're typing
Ctrl + U = Cut everything before the cursor to a special clipboard, erases the whole line
Ctrl + K = Cut everything after the cursor to a special clipboard
Ctrl + Y = Paste from the special clipboard that Ctrl + U and Ctrl + K save their data to
Ctrl + T = Swap the two characters before the cursor (you can actually use this to transport a character from the left to the right, try it!)
Ctrl + W = Delete the word / argument left of the cursor in the current line
Ctrl + D = Log out of current session, similar to exit
date +%s = Display the UNIX timestamp
/etc/init.d/apache2 restart = Restart Apache Server
Here's a one-liner that's handy to have in your .profile:

alias ducks='du -cks * |sort -rn |head -11'
Once this alias is in place, running ducks in any directory will show you the total in use, followed by the top 10 disk hogs.
How to Install .run Files
I am going to be using a file with the dummy name ''.
You should replace 'phil' with the name of the file you are trying to install!

1. Open a terminal. In Gnome the terminal is found in Applications > Accessories > Terminal.
2. Navigate to the directory of the .run file. For this example, I have mine on the desktop so I would type in 'cd ~/Desktop' and press enter.
3. Type 'chmod +x' press enter.
4. Now type './', press enter, and the installer will run.
How to Install .bin Files

I am going to be using a file with the dummy name 'phil.bin'.
You should replace 'phil' with the name of the file you are trying to install!
You'll need to tell Ubuntu that this file must be 'executed' and not opened in a program, like .odf files are opened by OpenOffice.
Right to execute a .bin file in Ubuntu first save the .bin file somewhere on your desktop for convenience. Then right-click the file and click 'Properties'. Click the 'Permissions' tab and check the 'Allow executing file as program' checkbox. Press Close and you are ready to execute a .bin file.
If it stll doesn't work you may have to resort to executing commands in the terminal window. Open your Terminal window which is found in 'Applications' > 'Accessories' > 'Terminal'. If you have saved the .bin file on your Desktop, execute this command:
sudo chmod +x phil.bin
It will ask for your password. Enter it and hit Enter. Please remember that being Linux it is case sensitive. Now, simply execute the file by executing:
It might ask for the password again, but at least this way you can execute your .bin file.
Happy Computing!